MOLECULAR & CLINICAL DIAGNOSTIC SERVICES
Molecular and Clinical Diagnostics
Department of Molecular and Clinical Diagnostics, part of BDRC (Bio Axis DNA Research Centre), a contract research organization (CRO), located at Hyderabad, has facilities in it’s Hyderabad and Lucknow campus for molecular diagnosis of infectious organisms and genetic disorders. Diagnostic imaging is currently undergoing a transition from anatomical analysis and contrast towards true molecular imaging. In that respect, the connection to clinical and molecular diagnostics is becoming more and more direct and integrative diagnostic work-flows seem feasible. The development of such work-flows and the connection to the emerging concepts of companion diagnostics as well as outcomes analysis will be required. Molecular diagnostic assays can be performed with many types of samples, including blood, urine, tissue, and sputum. But molecular technology is certainly not limited to traditional clinical applications, as samples from the environment also can be tested. The earliest molecular diagnostic assays were developed to detect infection by human pathogens. These assays have evolved into sensitive tests to quantitative or genotype disease-causing agents or genes.

List of Molecular diagnostic services

Bullet  Hepatitis-B Qualitative and Quantitative PCR
Bullet  Hepatitis-C Qualitative and Quantitative PCR
Bullet  Hepatitis-A RNA PCR
Bullet  HIV Proviral DNA PCR /HIV, HIV-1 Quantitative RT PCR
Bullet  HPV DNA PCR
Bullet  Qualitative PCR for TB DNA
Bullet  Screening for Huntingtons disease/Leigh’s disease/Malaria, etc.
Bullet  β-thalassemia detection
Bullet  Cytogenetic studies by Karyotyping and FISH
Bullet  Cancer Detection (By liquid-based cytology)

1. Hepatitis Detection

Hepatitis DetectionIn our dependable and recognized laboratories, we perform testing for Hepatitis  B and C. Our goal is to remove the long waits associated with Hepatitis screenings. Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver that can be caused by a group of viruses. There are five major types of viral hepatitis. Among them, HBV and HCV are the most common types of viral hepatitis found in India.The hepatitis B virus can infect a person if his or her mucous membranes or blood are exposed to an infected person’s blood, saliva, semen, or vaginal secretions. Hepatitis C is spread by contact with the blood of an infected person.When hepatitis viruses damage liver cells, scar tissue is formed and those cells can no longer function. Person may be infected with a hepatitis virus but may experience no symptoms at all. If symptoms are present, they may include:

flu-like feeling
muscle aches
headaches
loss of appetite
abdominal pain
jaundice
nausea
fever
extreme fatigue
darkening of the urine

The only way to determine whether or not you are infected with a hepatitis virus is to get tested and/or seek medical attention.

2. HIV (AIDS) Detection

HIV, refers to Human Immunodeficiency Virus is a Retro virus that belongs to Lentiviridae. Infection with HIV occurs by the transfer of blood, semen, vaginal fluid, pre-ejaculate, or breast milk. HIV is present as both free virus particles and virus within infected immune cells HIV (AIDS) Detection in these body fluids. Screening of blood products for HIV has largely eliminated transmission through blood transfusions or infected blood products in the developed world. There are diagnostic tests like HIV antibody test, P24 antigen test, Rapid test for it’s diagnosis but the most accurate test will be based on PCR. A PCR test (Polymerase Chain Reaction test) can detect the genetic material of HIV rather than the antibodies to the virus, and so can identify HIV in the blood within two or three weeks of infection. The tests performed using PCR are HIV Proviral DNA PCR, Viral load. CD4 and CD8 cell count using Flow cytometry is also the best marker for identification of HIV infection. The viral load test is a quantitative measurement of HIV nucleic acid (RNA) that provides important information that is used in conjunction with the CD4 cell count.
The following are the main HIV symptoms:

HIV Symptomsarrow  Rapid weight loss
arrow  Dry cough
arrow  Recurring fever or profuse night sweats
arrow  Profound and unexplained fatigue
arrow  Swollen lymph glands in the armpits, groin, or neck
arrow  Diarrhea that lasts for more than a week
arrow  White spots or unusual blemishes on the tongue, in the mouth, or in the throat
arrow  Pneumonia
arrow  Red, brown, pink, or purplish blotches on or under the skin or inside the mouth, nose,
or eyelids
arrow  Memory loss, depression, and other neurological disorders The process of extracting genetic material and testing     it with a PCR test is referred to as Nucleic Acid-amplification Testing ‘. PCR tests detect the genetic material of HIV     itself, and can identify HIV in the blood within two or three weeks of infection.

3. HPV DNA PCR

HPV DNA PCRHuman Papilloma Virus (HPV), the causative agent of Cervical cancer is a sexually transmitted infection that kills around 230,000 women annually, worldwide. In most women, the infection will not be detected immediately. The direct evidence of HPV in cervical specimens offers an alternative to populati on-based cytological screening. Recent studies have demonstrated that HPV test results are more sensitive (although they are less specific) than Pap smears in detecting high-grade dysplasia in older women.3,4 In most scenarios women with positive HPV tests still have Pap tests or a diagnostic procedure to provide cytological or histological confirmation of their disease.

4. Qualitative PCR for TB DNAQualitative PCR for TB DNA

PCR is the most widely used molecular diagnostic tool for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The principle is to detect a specific sequence in clinical sample by hybridizing the nucleic acid acid with a probe. PCR has enhanced the diagnostic predictability of the disease especially in the extrapulmonary, paucibacillary samples. High specificity and sensitivity have been reported in different samples. The technique is capable of picking as few as ten to fifty tubercle bacilli.

5.
Screening for β-ThalassemiaScreening for β-Thalassemia

The thalassemias are a group of genetic (inherited) blood disorders that share in common one feature, the defective production of hemoglobin, the protein that enables red blood cells to carry oxygen (and carbon dioxide). The most familiar type of thalassemia is beta thalassemia. It involves decreased production of normal adult hemoglobin (Hb A), the predominant type of hemoglobin from soon after birth until death. Worldwide, beta thalassemia is considered a fairly common blood disorder, affecting thousands of infants each year. Thalassemia major and thalassemia intermedia are inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means both copies of the gene in each cell, have mutations.

6. Cytogenetics services

KaryotypingKARYOTYPING

Karyotyping is diagnostic test to examine chromosomes in a sample of cells. This test helps in identification of genetic problems as well as the cause of a disorder or disease. It is suggestible to every couple to consult a genetic counselor and discuss all the queries related to the risk factors of the genetic diseases for an unborn baby. This test is effective for identification of abnormal changes in Chromosomal no. and structural changes in chromosomes. The following samples can be tested for Genetic disorder using Karyotyping at BDRC.

Peripheral Blood
Amniotic fluid
Bone marrow aspirate
Chorionic Villi Sample (CVS)
To test amniotic fluid, amniocentesis is compulsory.
A bone marrow specimen requires a bone marrow biopsy.

Common abnormalities detected by Karyotyping at BDRC:

Cystic Fibrosis,Down Syndrome, Tay-Sachs Disease, Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Turner Syndrome, Retinitis Pigmentosa, Fragile X Syndrome, Hemophilia A and B, Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease,n Adrenoleukodystrophy, Huntington Disease, Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome, Fanconi Anemia Gaucher Disease, Sickle Cell Anemia

Flourescent In situ HybridizationFlourescent In situ Hybridization (FISH)

Flourescent in situ hybridization is a molecular cytogenetic technique based on karyotyping which can be used for the detection chromosomal deletions, translocations or gene amplification in cancer cells. FISH has the full range of oncology diagnostics.  To discuss your query please contact us @ services@dnares.in

7. Flow Cytometry services and Immunochemical level studies

Flow cytometry is a technique for counting, examining, and sorting microscopic particles suspended in a stream of fluid. It allows simultaneous multiparametric analysis of the physical and/or chemical characteristics of single cells flowing through an optical and/or electronic detection apparatus. We offer flow cytometry services to analyse cells or cellular components for a wide range of morphological characteristics which includes CD4 / CD8 / CD3 absolute percentage, Cytokine / chemokine levels