Personalised Medicine

Personalised Medicine
The growing demand for personalised medicine and the increasing simplicity of genetic testing underpins the concept of pharmacogenomics – which gives medical practitioners the power to accurately determine the right drug and dose for the patient, based on their DNA.
Genetic testing and personalised medicine

How it works

Genetic tests available in South Africa now include those as simple as a cheek swab done in the comfort of the patient’s own home – countering the perception that genetic testing is invasive, complicated or excessively expensive.

Experts weigh in

Dr Daniel Meyersfeld, molecular biologist and founder of DNAlysis Biotechnology, suggests extensive research conducted over the past few years supports genotype testing as means of determining patient-specific precision medicine.

“Medicine is no longer ‘one dose fits all’. By analysing DNA, it’s possible to understand how different genotypes affect the metabolism of medication in the body,” explains Meyersfeld. “With these scientific insights, medical practitioners can preemptively optimise medications for their patient and see better results by avoiding a ‘trial-and-error’ approach to drug prescription.”

Mind the (knowledge) gap

Meyersfeld adds there’s a lack of awareness about genetic testing in South Africa – how it’s conducted, and the science behind it. This has prevented many South Africans from exploring genetic testing to enhance their own healthcare.

“In SA, there’s a misconception that genetic testing is hugely expensive and invasive, which simply isn’t the truth. There’s also a fear of genetic information falling into the wrong hands – being used by insurance companies to determine risk, for example,” says Meyersfeld.

Meds to watch

Areas of particular focus for genetic testing and personalised medicine include cardiovascular disease, psychiatry and pain management, as these clusters are frequently prescribed as chronic medications.

Clopidogrel, as an example, is the standard treatment to stop blood clotting, heart attacks or strokes after coronary stent surgery – but studies show 2-14% of the population don’t metabolise the medication adequately, which can leave them vulnerable. Widely used blood-thinner Warfarin is also known to vary in effectiveness from patient to patient, which makes dosing problematic for medical practitioners.

“Currently, drugs are prescribed to meet the needs of the general population – not the individual. Now, we can analyse our DNA to understand how each of us processes medication in the body, and to flag medications with more extreme side effects for individuals. What’s most exciting is that this world-class test is available to the South African public,” says Meyersfeld.

Harnessing healthcare

“We’re in the information age on steroids. There’s nothing we can’t know these days. So why do we know so little about our own DNA? It’s the roadmap for how our bodies work, so it makes sense for individuals – and their trusted medical practitioners – to understand everything about their unique genetics, so they can access more informed, more effective medical treatment,” concludes Meyersfeld.

 

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